Rules of Procedure for the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China

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Rules of Procedure for the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China

(Adopted at the Second Session of the Seventh National People’s Congress on April 4, 1989; amended according to the Decision of the National People’s Congress on Revising the Rules of Procedure for the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China at the Fourth Session of the Thirteenth National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 11, 2021)

Contents

Chapter I    Holding of Meetings

Chapter II    Submission of and Deliberation on Bills and Proposals

Chapter III   Deliberation of Work Reports and Examination of State Plans and Budgets

Chapter IV  Election, Recall, Appointment, Removal from Office, and Resignation of Members of State Organs

Chapter V    Addressing of Questions and Inquiries

Chapter VI    Investigation Committees

Chapter VII   Speaking and Voting

Chapter VIII   Announcement

Chapter IX    Supplementary Provision

Chapter  I

Holding of Meetings

Article 1  These Rules are formulated in accordance with the Constitution, the Organic Law of the National People’s Congress and the practical experience of the National People’s Congress.

Article 2  The National People’s Congress shall meet in session in the first quarter of each year. The date of a session shall be determined and announced by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

Under special circumstances, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress may hold a meeting to decide to advance or delay a session for an appropriate time. When the date of convening the advanced or delayed session is not determined in the meeting, the Standing Committee may determine the date in another meeting or authorize its Council of Chairpersons to determine the date, and the date, once determined, shall be announced.

Article 3  Sessions of the National People’s Congress shall be convened by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The first session of each National People’s Congress shall be convened by the Standing Committee of the previous National People’s Congress within two months of the election of deputies to the current National People’s Congress.

Article 4  Sessions of the National People’s Congress shall be held only when two thirds or more of deputies are present.

Article 5  The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall, before a session of the National People’s Congress is held, conduct the following preparatory work for the session:

(1) to submit a draft agenda for the session;

(2) to submit a draft namelist of the Presidium and the Secretary-General;

(3) to decide on the namelist of non-voting participants; and

(4) to make other preparations for the session.

Article 6   A month before the holding of a session of the National People’s Congress, its Standing Committee shall notify the deputies of the date of the session  and of the main items on the proposed agenda and shall distribute to the deputies the draft laws to be submitted to the session for deliberation.

Before a session of the National People’s Congress is convened, its Standing Committee may guide deputies to study and discuss draft laws to be deliberated, invite comments from deputies and brief them on major issues and relevant facts to be discussed in the session.

The provisions of the two preceding paragraphs do not apply to the sessions convened additionally.

Article 7  Before a session of the National People’s Congress is held, deputies shall be grouped into delegations based on the units that elected them. The head and deputy-heads of a delegation shall be elected at a general meeting of the delegation. The head of a delegation shall call and preside over the general meetings of the delegation. The deputy-heads shall assist in the work of the head of the delegation.

Each delegation may be subdivided into groups of deputies. The convener of a group shall be elected at a group meeting of deputies.

Article 8  Before a session of the National People’s Congress is held, a preparatory meeting shall be convened to elect the Presidium and the Secretary-General, adopt the agenda for the session and make decisions on other preparations for the session.

The preparatory meeting shall be presided over by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. The preparatory meeting of the first session of each National People’s Congress shall be conducted by the Standing Committee of the previous National People’s Congress.

All delegations shall deliberate and give their opinions on the draft namelist of the Presidium and the Secretary-General, the draft agenda and other matters preparatory to the session submitted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

The Council of chairpersons of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress may, based on the opinions expressed by each delegation, put forward proposals on adjustments in the draft namelist of the Presidium and the Secretary-General, the draft agenda for the session and other matters preparatory to the session and refer them to the preparatory meeting for deliberation.

Article 9  The Presidium shall preside over the sessions of the National People’s Congress.

The Presidium shall adopt its decisions by a simple majority vote of all its members.

Article 10  The first meeting of the Presidium shall elect a number of standing chairpersons of the Presidium, and elect some of the members of the Presidium to serve respectively as the executive chairpersons of each plenary meeting of the session, and shall decide on the following matters:

(1)  choice of the Deputy Secretaries-General;

(2)  schedule of the session;

(3)  deadline for the submission of bills and proposals by deputies in a session; and

(4)  other matters requiring decision by the first meeting of the Presidium.

Article 11 The standing chairpersons of the Presidium shall convene and preside over meetings of the Presidium. The first meeting of the Presidium shall be convened and presided over by the chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. After the standing chairpersons of the Presidium are elected in the first meeting, they shall preside over the meeting.

Article 12  Bills or proposals and the relevant reports which are to be deliberated by the delegations shall be deliberated at the general meetings and group meetings of the delegations.

Bills, written inquiries and proposals for removal from office that are to be submitted in the name of a delegation shall be adopted by a simple majority vote of all the members of the delegation.

Article 13  The standing chairpersons of the Presidium may convene meetings of heads of delegations to hear and discuss the deliberation reports of each delegation on major issues concerning bills or proposals and the relevant reports and report the discussions and comments to the Presidium. The standing chairpersons of the Presidium may conduct discussions of important specialized problems by calling together relevant deputies elected by the delegations; leaders of relevant departments under the State Council shall attend the meeting, report the related circumstances and answer questions. The standing chairpersons of the Presidium shall report the discussions and comments to the Presidium.

Article 14  The Presidium may convene a plenary meeting of the session, at which speeches shall be made and opinions expressed on a bill or proposal or a relevant report.

Article 15  The deputies to the National People’s Congress shall attend the meetings in a session; if a deputy is not able to attend the meetings on account of illnesses or for other reasons, he shall submit the Secretariat a written request for leave. The Secretariat shall report the deputies’ attendance and the reasons for absence to the Presidium.

Deputies shall work diligently and take responsibilities to deliberate bills, proposals, and reports and observe discipline of the meetings.

Article 16  Members of the State Council, members of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court and the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate may attend meetings of the National People’s Congress without voting rights. By decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, leaders of other state organs and public organizations concerned may attend meetings of the National People’s Congress without voting rights.

Article 17  Sessions of the National People’s Congress shall be held in public.

The agenda, schedule, and meetings of a session of the National Peoples Congress shall be made public.

During a session of the National People’s Congress, speeches by deputies at various meetings shall be printed in bulletins for distribution at the session; the minutes or summaries of the speeches may, upon the request of the speakers, be printed for distribution at the session as well. The bulletins, minutes or summaries of the speeches may be in printed or digitized form.

Visitors’ seats shall be provided at plenary meetings of a session. Measures for visiting the meetings shall be stipulated separately.

Article 18  News briefings and press conferences shall be held during the  session of the National People’s Congress.

The National People’s Congress shall have a spokesperson, and each delegation may have spokespersons according to its need.

The Secretariat may organize deputies and the leading persons of relevant departments and entities to participate in media interviews. Delegations may organize their deputies to participate in media interviews.

Plenary meetings of a session shall be broadcast on the radio, on television, and on the internet.

Article 19  When necessary, the National People’s Congress may hold a closed session. The holding of a closed session shall, after the Presidium has solicited opinions from each delegation, be decided by the meeting of the Presidium with the participation of the heads of all the delegations.

Article 20  When the National People’s Congress is in session, the Secretariat and delegations concerned shall provide deputies from the minority nationalities with the necessary interpretation.

Article 21 The schedule of a session shall be properly set to improve the quality and efficiency of proceedings.

Each delegation shall conduct deliberation according to the schedule.

Article 22 Modern information technology, such as digitizing documents of meetings and video conferencing shall be adopted in a session of the National People’s Congress to make it more convenient and to provide better services for deputies to fulfil their duties.

Chapter  II

Submission of and Deliberation on Bills and Proposals

Article 23  The Presidium, the Standing Committee and the special committees of the National People’s Congress, the State Council, the Central Military Commission, the National Commission of Supervision, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate may submit to the National People’s Congress bills and proposals that fall within its powers, and the Presidium shall decide whether to put them on the agenda of a session.

A delegation or a group of thirty or more deputies may submit to the National People’s Congress bills or proposals that fall within its powers. The Presidium shall decide whether or not to put the bills or proposals on the agenda of the session, or to refer them to the relevant special committees for deliberation and, after receiving their opinions, decide whether or not to put them on the agenda of the session. The Presidium shall also print the report on the disposition of the bills or proposals approved by the Presidium for distribution at the session. When bills or proposals are deliberated at meetings of the special committees, their sponsors may be invited to attend the meetings as nonvoting participants to express their opinions.

Bills or proposals that are to be submitted by a group of deputies or a delegation may be submitted before a session of the National People’s Congress is held.

Article 24  With regard to bills or proposals that have been placed on the agenda of a session, the sponsors, the relevant special committees of the National People’s Congress and the relevant office of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall provide the pertinent information.

Article 25  With regard to bills or proposals that have been placed on the agenda of a session, the sponsors shall submit explanations to the session. The bills or proposals shall be deliberated by each delegation and the Presidium may, in the meantime, refer them to the relevant special committees for deliberation. The result of the deliberations shall then be reported to the Presidium which may, after its own deliberation, decide to put the bills or proposals to the vote at a plenary meeting of the session.

Article 26  With regard to legislative bills that have been placed on the agenda of a session, after explanations about them are heard at plenary meetings, they shall be deliberated by delegations and, in the meantime, by the Constitution and Law Committee and other relevant special committees.

The Constitution and Law Committee shall, on the basis of opinions expressed during deliberations by the delegations and other relevant special committees, conduct unified deliberation on the legislative bills and submit to the Presidium the deliberation reports as well as the revised draft laws and the revised draft decisions on issues of law. The Constitution and Law Committee shall include major dissenting opinions in the deliberation reports. The Presidium shall, after deliberation and approval, print them for distribution at the session. The revised drafts shall be deliberated by delegations and be further revised by the Constitution and Law Committee based on the deliberation opinions of delegations to work out the drafts for the vote, which the Presidium shall submit to a plenary meeting of the session for the vote.

Deliberation reports that are prepared by relevant special committees shall be promptly printed and distributed at the session.

The procedure for deliberation and voting on the legislative bills prepared and submitted by a special law-drafting committee established by decision of the National People’s Congress shall be formulated separately.

Article 27  When the National People’s Congress is not in session, legislative bills to be submitted to it may be sent to its Standing Committee. After the Standing Committee deliberates the legislative bills according to relevant procedures, it shall decide whether to submit the said bills to the National People’s Congress for deliberation.

The Standing Committee shall publish for extensive comment the legislative bills that are to be submitted to a session for deliberation, except when the Council of Chairpersons of the Standing Committee decides not to publish the bills. In general, the duration for comments shall not be less than 30 days.

Article 28  During deliberations on bills or proposals or the relevant reports involving specialized problems, the special committees may invite the relevant deputies and specialists to attend the meeting as nonvoting participants to express their opinions.

The special committees may decide on the holding of a closed meeting.

Article 29  Deliberation on a bill or proposal already placed on the agenda of a session shall be terminated upon approval by the Presidium of a request made by the sponsor for its withdrawal before it is put to the vote.

Article 30  If important issues are raised during deliberations on a bill or proposal placed on the agenda of a session and call for further study, upon decision by a plenary meeting of a session on a proposal made by the Presidium, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress may be authorized to deliberate on the bill or proposal, after which it shall either make a decision and report it to the next session of the National People’s Congress for the record or refer the bill or proposal to the next session of the National People’s Congress for deliberation.

Article 31  If the Presidium decides not to include in the agenda of a session a bill or proposal put forward by a delegation or a group of thirty or more deputies, the bill or proposal shall be submitted to relevant special committees of the National People’s Congress for deliberation after the session is concluded. The special committees, after deliberation, shall submit a deliberation  report to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, which, after being deliberated and approved by the Standing Committee, shall be printed and distributed in the next session of the National People’s Congress.

Article 32  The proposals, criticisms and opinions put forward by deputies to the National People’s Congress concerning any sphere of work shall be referred by the office of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress to the relevant organs or organizations, which shall study them, handle them and be responsible to give an answer within three months of the referral or within six months at the latest. If the deputies are not satisfied with the answer, they may raise their opinions, which shall be referred by the office of the Standing Committee to the relevant organs or organizations or those at a higher level to be studied and handled anew and to give an answer.

Chapter  III

Deliberation of Work Reports and Examination of State Plans and Budgets

Article 33  When the National People’s Congress is in session each year,  resolutions may be adopted at the session corresponding to the work reports submitted to it by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the State Council, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, after deliberation by each delegation.

Article 34  Forty-five days before the holding of a session of the National People’s Congress, the competent departments concerned under the State Council shall brief the Financial and Economic Committee and the relevant special committees of the National People’s Congress on the implementation of the previous years’ plan for national economic and social development and on this year’s plan draft as well as on the implementation of the previous year’s central and local budgets and on this year’s budgets drafts for preliminary examination by the Financial and Economic Committee. The Financial and Economic Committee shall invite deputies to the National People’s Congress to participate in the preliminary examination.

Article 35  When the National People’s Congress is in session each year, the State Council shall submit to the session a report on the implementation of the plan for national economic and social development of the previous years and on the draft plan of this year, along with the draft plan, as well as a report on the implementation of the previous year’s central and local budgets and on this year’s draft budgets, along with the draft budgets, to be examined by the delegations and also by the Financial and Economic Committee and other relevant special committees.

The Financial and Economic Committee shall, in the light of the opinions of the delegations and the relevant special committees, examine the reports and drafts mentioned in the precedent paragraph, and submit to the Presidium a report on the results of its examination. The Presidium shall, after deliberation and approval, print the report for distribution at the session; the Presidium shall also submit a draft resolution on the implementation of the plan for national economic and social development of the previous year and on the plan of this year, as well as a draft resolution on the implementation of the previous year’s central and local budgets and on this year’s budgets to a plenary meeting of the session for the vote.

Deliberation reports prepared by the relevant special committees shall be promptly printed and distributed at the session.

Article 36  If, in the course of implementation, adjustment must be made to part of the plan for national economic and social development or the central budget approved by the National People’s Congress, the State Council shall submit the adjusted plan or the budget to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for examination and approval.

Article 37  The outline of a five-year plan for national economic and social development and the outline of the long-range objectives shall be examined, approved and adjusted according to, mutatis mutandis, the relevant provisions of this Chapter.

Chapter IV

Election, Recall, Appointment, Removal from Office, and Resignation of Members of State Organs

Article 38  Candidates for the Chairperson, Vice-Chairpersons, Secretary-General and other members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, for the President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, for the Chairperson of the Central Military Commission, for the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, for the President of the Supreme People’s Court and for the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall be nominated by the Presidium, and the Presidium shall, after consultation among each delegation, decide upon a formal list of candidates based on the opinion of the majority of deputies.

The Premier and other members of the State Council and members of the Central Military Commission other than its chairperson shall be nominated in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Constitution.

Candidates for the chairperson, vice-chairpersons and other members of the special committees shall be nominated by the Presidium from among the deputies.

Article 39  Nominators of candidates shall provide the meeting with basic information on the candidates and make necessary explanations to questions raised by deputies.

Article 40  At a session of the National People’s Congress, elections shall be conducted and appointments decided by secret ballot. Candidates shall be elected and decisions adopted by a simple majority vote of all the deputies.

When elections are conducted or proposals for appointment are put to the vote at a plenary meeting of a session, ballot-writing booths shall be installed.

The outcome of an election or vote shall be announced on the spot by the person presiding over the meeting. The number of votes received by a candidate shall be announced.

Article 41  Specific measures for elections and decisions on appointment at a session of the National People’s Congress shall be adopted at a plenary meeting of the session.

Article 42  Members of state organs who are elected or appointed by the National People’s Congress in accordance with the statutory procedures shall make a public pledge of allegiance to the Constitution. The pledge shall be organized by the Presidium.

Article 43  During a session of the National People’s Congress, if a member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the President or a Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, a member of the State Council, a member of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court, the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, a member of special committees of the National People’s Congress tenders his resignation, the Presidium shall first forward the resignation to the delegations for deliberation and then submit it to a plenary meeting of the session for decision; if a resignation is tendered when the National People’s Congress is not in session, the Council of chairpersons shall submit the resignation to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for deliberation and decision.

If the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress accepts the  resignation of the chairperson, a Vice-chairperson or the Secretary-General of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the President or a Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, the Premier or a Vice-Premier of the State Council, a State Councilor, the chairperson of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court or the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate, it shall refer the resignation to the next session of the National People’s Congress for confirmation.

If the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress accepts the resignation of any of its members, it shall make a report thereon at the next session of the National People’s Congress.

When the National People’s Congress is not in session, should the office of the Premier of the State Council, the Chairperson of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court, or the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate becomes vacant, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall choose a person to act in his/her capacity respectively from among the Vice-Premiers of the State Council, the Vice-Chairpersons of the Central Military Commission, the Vice-Chairpersons of the National Commission of Supervision, the Vice-Presidents of the Supreme People’s Court, or the Deputy Procurators-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate.

Article 44  The Presidium, three or more delegations or a group of at least one tenth of the number of deputies to the National People’s Congress may submit a proposal for removal from office of a member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China, a member of the State Council, a member of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court or the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate. The Presidium shall refer the proposal to the delegations for deliberation and then put it to the vote in a plenary meeting of the session; or in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of these Rules, an investigation committee shall be organized by decision of a plenary meeting of the session on a proposal of the Presidium and, on the basis of the report of the investigation committee, the proposal for removal from office shall be deliberated and decided at the next session of the National People’s Congress.

For a proposal for removal from office, the reasons thereof shall be stated and the relevant information provided.

Before a proposal for removal from office is put to the vote at a plenary meeting of a session, the person proposed to be removed from office shall have the right to defend himself at a meeting of the Presidium or a plenary meeting of the session, or to present a written statement in his defence, which shall be printed by the Presidium for distribution at the session.

Article 45  For a member of the Standing Committee or a special committee of the National People’s Congress whose position as a deputy to the National People’s Congress is recalled by the unit that elected him, the position he holds as a member of the Standing Committee or a special committee of the National People’s Congress shall be annulled accordingly, which shall be announced by the Presidium or the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.

Article 46  If the resignation of a member of the Standing Committee or of a special committee of the National People’s Congress as deputy to the National People’s Congress is accepted, his/her office of member of the Standing Committee or the special committee shall be terminated, which shall be announced by the Standing Committee.

Chapter  V

Addressing of Questions and Inquiries

Article 47  During deliberations by delegations on a bill or proposal and a relevant report, the department concerned shall send leading personnel to attend the meeting to listen to comments and answer questions raised by deputies.

During the deliberation on the work report of the government, examination of the report on the implementation of the plan for national economic and social development of the previous year and on the draft plan of this year as well as the draft plan, examination of the report on the implementation of the previous year’s central and local budgets and on this year’s draft budgets as well as the draft budgets, and deliberation of the work report of the Supreme People’s Court and the work report of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate at the general meetings of the delegations, leaders of the State Council and of the departments under the State Council, leaders of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate shall respectively attend the meetings, listen to comments and answer questions.

During deliberations by the Presidium and by the special committees on a bill or proposal and a relevant report, leaders of the State Council or the organs concerned shall attend the meeting to listen to comments and answer questions and may also make additional explanations about the bill or proposal and the relevant report.

Article 48  During a session of the National People’s Congress, a delegation or a group of thirty or more deputies may submit written inquiries addressed to the State Council and the departments under the State Council, the National Commission of Supervision, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate.

Article 49  In written inquiries, the objects to be inquired and the topics and contents to be inquired into must be clearly stated.

Article 50  With regard to written inquiries, the Presidium shall decide whether to request the head of the organ inquired to give an oral reply at a meeting of the Presidium, a meeting of the relevant special committee or a meeting of the relevant delegation, or to refer the inquires to the organ concerned for a written reply. If the reply is to be given at a meeting of the Presidium or of a special committee, the head of the delegation or the deputies who submitted the written inquires shall have the right to attend the meeting to express their opinions.

If the delegation or the deputies who submitted the written inquires are not satisfied with the reply, they may raise their request. The organ inquired shall, by decision of the Presidium, give another reply.

If the reply is given at a meeting of a special committee or a delegation, the relevant special committee or delegation shall report the reply and the related circumstances to the Presidium.

The Presidium may, when it deems it necessary, print for distribution at the session the report on the reply to the written inquires and the related circumstances.

If the reply is given in written form, it shall be signed by the head of the organ inquired and shall, by decision of the Presidium, be printed for distribution at the session.

Chapter  VI

Investigation Committees

Article 51  The National People’s Congress may, when it deems it necessary, appoint committees for the investigation of specific questions.

Article 52  The Presidium, three or more delegations or a group of one tenth or more of the number of deputies may put forward a proposal for appointing committees for the investigation of specific questions. The proposal shall be submitted by the Presidium to a plenary meeting of the session for decision.

An investigation committee shall be composed of a chairperson and a certain number of vice-chairpersons and members, who shall be nominated by the Presidium from among the deputies and approved by a plenary meeting of the session. An investigation committee may invite specialists to participate in its investigations.

Article 53  When an investigation committee conducts investigations, all state organs, public organizations and citizens concerned shall be obliged to truthfully furnish the necessary information. If the citizens who furnish the information request the investigation committee to keep the sources of information confidential, the investigation committee shall keep them confidential.

The investigation committee may, in the course of its investigation, choose not to make public the information or materials obtained through investigation.

Article 54  An investigation committee shall submit an investigation report to the National People’s Congress. The National People’s Congress may adopt appropriate resolutions based on the report of the investigation committee.

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress may be authorized by the National People’s Congress to hear the investigation report of an investigation committee and adopt appropriate resolutions, when the National People’s Congress is not in session, and shall report to the next session of the National People’s Congress for the record.

Chapter  VII

Speaking and Voting

Article 55  Deputies to the National People’s Congress shall not be held legally liable for their speeches or votes at various meetings of the National People’s Congress.

Article 56  Speeches by deputies in meetings of a session of the National People’s Congress shall be based on topics of the meetings.

Article 57  A deputy who is to speak at a plenary meeting of a session may speak twice, with the first speech not exceeding ten minutes and the second speech not exceeding five minutes.

A deputy who asks to speak at a plenary meeting of a session shall sign up at the Secretariat before the meeting is convened, and the order of speeches shall be arranged by the executive chairpersons of the meeting. An impromptu speech at a plenary meeting of a session shall be subject to approval by the executive chairpersons.

Article 58  A member of the Presidium, the head of a delegation or a representative elected by a delegation may, at each meeting of the Presidium, speak twice on the same topic, with the first speech not exceeding fifteen minutes and the second speech not exceeding ten minutes. The time limit may be appropriately extended, if approved by the person presiding over the meeting.

Article 59  Bills or proposals put to the vote at a plenary meeting of a session shall be adopted by a simple majority vote of all the deputies.

An amendment to the Constitution shall be adopted by two thirds or more of the votes of all the deputies.

The outcome of a voting shall be announced on the spot by the person presiding over the meeting.

In a voting, deputies can vote Yes or No or abstain from voting.

Article 60  At sessions of the National People’s Congress, deputies shall vote anonymously on bills or proposals by pressing the buttons on the voting devices. If the voting devices fail during a voting, deputies shall vote by showing of hands.

An amendment to the Constitution shall be voted by anonymous ballot.

The provisions in the first paragraph apply to the procedure for voting in preparatory meetings and meetings of the Presidium.

Chapter VIII  

Announcement

Article 61  After the Chairperson, Vice-Chairpersons, Secretary-General, and members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the President and Vice-Presidents of the People’s Republic of China, the Chairperson of the Central Military Commission, the Chairperson of the National Commission of Supervision, the President of the Supreme People’s Court and the Procurator-General of the Supreme People’s Procuratorate are elected by the National People’s Congress, the Vice-Chairpersons and members of the Central Military Commission are appointed by the National People’s Congress, and nominations of members of special committees of the National People’s Congress are approved by the National People’s Congress, the election results, appointments, and nominations approved shall be made public by announcement of the National People’s Congress.

The President of the People’s Republic of China shall, based on the decisions of the National People’s Congress, sign orders of the President to appoint and announce the Premier and Vice-Premiers of the State Council, State Councilors, ministers of departments of the State Council, chairpersons of commissions, the Governor of the People’s Bank of China, the Auditor General of the National Audit Office, Secretary General of the State Council whose appointment are decided by the National People’s Congress.

Article 62  The announcing procedure provided in Article 61 shall be applicable to the case where a member of a state organ resigns or is recalled during a session of the National People’s Congress.

Article 63  An amendment to the Constitution passed by the National People’s Congress shall be announced by an announcement of the National People’s Congress.

Article 64  The laws passed by the National People’s Congress shall be promulgated by orders of the President signed by the President of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 65  The laws, resolutions, decisions, announcements, as well as the explanations and deliberation results of draft laws shall be published in the gazettes of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and on the website of the National People’s Congress.

Chapter IX  

Supplementary Provisions

Article 66  These Rules shall come into force as of the date of promulgation.

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